Fluoride specifications of the Berkey® PF-2 / PF-4 fluoride filter elements

The following information reveals the secret behind the most popular safe effective removal fluoride treatment method used today by the many US fluoride filter manufacturer's. The reason is this method passes the life of filter test as other methods like bone char will give you the illusion that it works and that the test reports prove it true but only after a few hundred litres of water has passed by then the effectiveness then drops off, why then spend good money on a fluoride filter that has a short month of effective filtering only then to be exposed for the majority of the life of the filter to fluoride, which is the reason you first bought the product. You will notice that Berkey® uses nearly twice as much media (350 sq.m/gm) as most other manufacturer's. Please also notice in the technical Youtube video below that it emphasises that longer contact with the media is better, this is a plus for Berkey®  gravity system users as compared to pressurised higher pressure and flow rate filters. 

This is the trust I use for my family's protection against fluoride and knowing that activated alumina (corundum)  like rubies is not soluable, I am at peace with this knowledge. I hope you find this information below brings you a new definition to fluoride removal media. 

Also for an in depth read of a study carried out by a scientific panel from EFSA the European Food Safety Authority regarding the safety in use of the activated alumina treatment for the removal of fluoride, ultimately finding that the use of Activated Alumina will not pose a risk to human health. Please Read Here

PF-2/PF-4 Fluoride Reduction Media Information                                                      

(Extract from Proprietary Products Data Information Sheets)

Fluoride Reduction Media Definition: The fluoride removal media is the same mineral that rubies and sapphires (corundum) are made from, in crystalline form. The process ‘selective adsorption’ is a physical/ chemical reaction whereby the fluoride ions are removed by binding to the media’s oxidised surface.

PRODUCT INFORMATION:

The Berkey® Proprietary Fluoride Reduction Media is a new and improved high yield aluminum oxide (corundum) especially formulated for the removal of Fluoride and arsenic from drinking water. This media has an unusually high surface area of more than 350 sq.m./gram of material which allows more efficient removal of the Fluoride and arsenic ions. This high surface area is enhanced by controlled development of the pore size distribution from 30 Angstroms to 100 Angstroms, providing greater accessibility to the surface active sites through bulk diffusion.

Uniform particle size low silica content and high purity, is characteristic of the new and improved Proprietary Fluoride Reduction Media which insures effective operation in the reduction of Fluoride. The extremely low silica content significantly reduces the tendency of the silica to form silicone tetra fluoride which reacts with both the media and the pipes leading to clogging and corrosion problems.

PRODUCT APPLICATION:

The Berkey® Proprietary Fluoride Reduction Media is an EPA approved method for removing Fluoride from drinking water. This product can be used in various filtration products and can also be packed in large columns for high volume applications including drinking water treatment plants and waste treatment plants. The Proprietary Fluoride Reduction Media can be used in various applications where defluorination is necessary.

For maximum removal efficiency, maintain the water being treated between a PH level of 5-7. The media can be regenerated for enhanced performance lifetime with many applications. This makes the Proprietary Fluoride Reduction Media the most effective and economical defluorination product on the market.

TYPICAL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF PROPRIETARY FLUORIDE REDUCTION MEDIA:

  • Surface Area,                 sq. m/g. 350
  • Total Pore volume,          cc./g. .55
  • Aluminum Oxide             XRD Phase Chi, Gamma, Amorphous
  • Crush Strength,              lbs (kg) 30 (14)
  • Abrasion Loss                wt% 0.1 Bulk
  • Density,                           lbs/cu. ft (kg/cu. m) 47 (750)

TYPICAL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF PROPRIETARY FLUORIDE REDUCTION MEDIA:

                                         Wt %

  • AL2O3                        95.1  
  • SiO2                           0.02
  • Fe2O3                        0.02
  • Na2O                          0.30

GENERAL INFORMATION:

The Berkey® Proprietary Fluoride Reduction Media has been specially prepared to optimize the media for more efficient removal of the Fluoride ion. Testing of the material is important for each application as influent water PH, quality and purify of the water and various metal ion concentrations are all variables which influence the effectiveness of the media. Note that the material is most efficient between a PH of 5 and 7.

Testing for fluoride removal was based on 20-30 ppm of the ion in the influent aqueous solution at a flow rate of no more than 3 gpm per cubic foot (25kg) of media. Results of < 1 ppm of the fluoride ion in the effluent were typical for the media (>95% reduction). Under optimum conditions, effluent concentrations of less than 50 ppb of Fluoride ion were found to be readily achieved (>99.75% reduction). Results may vary significantly with each particular application.

OTHER INFORMATION:

1. Calcium & Sodium Fluoride. The Proprietary Fluoride Reduction Media will remove any types of inorganic fluoride salts. All fluoride salts are soluble in water. So it does not matter what fluoride salts that are in the water, fluoride is present as an anion where the media will absorb fluoride ions in water.

2. Hydro-Fluorosilicic Acid (HFS). We do not have any test data to show how efficient the Proprietary Fluoride Reduction Media will remove hydro-fluosilicic acid. But by adsorption of fluoride anion using alumina, we believe the media will remove hydro-fluosilicic acid better than fluoride. The reason is both compounds are ions with negative charges. The molecular size of hydrofluosilicic acid is much larger than the fluoride ion and hydrofluosilicic acid has two negative charges where as fluoride has only one negative charge. So this negative charge makes hydrofluosislicic acid much easier to adsorb to the media compared to regular fluoride ions.

3. Berkey® obtains its Proprietary Fluoride Reduction Media from a third party that manufactures specialized media that targets difficult to remove contaminates, such as Fluoride and Arsenic. The above information provided has been extracted from the supplier’s data sheets and other written communications.

Berkey PF-2™ Specifications

Berkey PF-2 Elements are designed for use in conjunction with Black Berkey® Purification Elements to adsorb the following unwanted contaminants found in drinking water:

• Fluoride
• Arsenic V and pre-oxidized Arsenic III
• Other residual heavy metal ions

TECHNICAL INFORMATION:

FLUORIDE: Testing for fluoride was based on 20-30ppm of the ion in the influent aqueous solution at a flow rate of no more than 3 gpm (11 lpm) per cubic foot of media. Results of < 1ppm of the fluoride ion in the effluent were typical for the media (>95% reduction). Under optimum conditions, effluent concentrations of less than 50 ppb were readily achieved (>99.75% reduction).

ARSENIC: This product uniquely targets the entire family of arsenic oxide anions as well as the arsenic cations.

REPLACEMENT:
Under normal conditions it is recommended that each set of two Berkey PF-2™ Elements be replaced after 1,000 gallons (3,785 liters). The Royal Berkey® system is about 3.25 gallons (12.3 liters) therefore the Berkey PF-2™ Elements should be replaced after 1,000/3.25 (3,785/12.3) or 307 refills. If the system is refilled about one time per day, the Berkey PF-2™ Elements should be replaced after 10 months;  if the system is refilled about twice per day, the Berkey PF-2™ Elements should be replaced about every five months). Actual capacity is dependent on the presence of other competing contaminants in the source water. High levels of fluoride, arsenic and heavy metals may reduce the capacity and efficiency of the elements.

Notes:

1) Do not boil this element.

2) Berkey PF-2™ Elements reduce filtration flow rate by 15-20%.

3) When lower reservoir is full of water, the Berkey PF-2™ Elements will be immersed.

4) When water level in lower reservoir rises above the bottom of the Berkey PF-2™ Elements, it is normal for small amounts of water to burp through threads connecting Berkey PF-2™ elements to Black Berkey®Purification Elements.

6) If/when you conduct the “Red Food Color Test” for the Black Berkey® Purification Elements, you must remove the Berkey  PF-2™ Elements first. Failure to do so may result in the voiding of the Berkey PF-2™ Element’s warranty.

7) The lower reservoir in most gravity purification systems has a two to three gallon capacity and a typical household uses about one refill per day. We recommend that the upper reservoir be filled at night. The water from upper reservoir should be purified by morning. It is normal for the purification process to slow down significantly when water level in lower reservoir rises above the bottom of the Berkey PF-2™ Elements. Households requiring more water can speed up the flow rate by drawing off the purified water into a water pitcher or other container when water level in lower reservoir rises above the bottom of the Berkey PF-2™ Elements.

*For maximum removal efficiency, maintain the water being treated between a PH level above  5 and  below 7. Actual capacity is dependent on the level of contamination of arsenic, fluoride and other competing heavy metal ions. Unusually high levels of these contaminants may reduce the capacity and efficiency of these elements.

For Berkey Knowledge Base For An In Depth Study Click Here