Fluoride specifications of the Berkey® PF-2 / PF-4 fluoride filter elements
The following information reveals the secret behind the most popular safe effective removal fluoride treatment method used today by the many US fluoride filter manufacturer's. The reason is this method passes the life of filter test as other methods like bone char will give you the illusion that it works and that the test reports prove it true but only after a few hundred litres of water has passed by then the effectiveness then drops off, why then spend good money on a fluoride filter that has a short month of effective filtering only then to be exposed for the majority of the life of the filter to fluoride, which is the reason you first bought the product. You will notice that Berkey® uses nearly twice as much media (350 sq.m/gm) as most other manufacturer's. Please also notice in the technical Youtube video below that it emphasises that longer contact with the media is better, this is a plus for Berkey® gravity system users as compared to pressurised higher pressure and flow rate filters.
This is the trust I use for my family's protection against fluoride and knowing that activated alumina (corundum) like rubies is not soluable, I am at peace with this knowledge. For those concerned about the word Alumina and not yet realised that activated aluminium oxide is safe, I hope you find this information below brings you a new definition to fluoride removal media.
PF-2/PF-4 Fluoride Reduction Media Information
(Extract from Proprietary Products Data Information Sheets)
Fluoride Reduction Media Definition: The fluoride removal media is the same mineral that rubies and sapphires (corundum) are made from, in crystalline form. The process ‘selective adsorption’ is a physical/ chemical reaction whereby the fluoride ions are removed by binding to the media’s oxidised surface.
The Berkey® Proprietary Fluoride Reduction Media is a new and improved high yield aluminum oxide (corundum) especially formulated for the removal of Fluoride and arsenic from drinking water. This media has an unusually high surface area of more than 350 sq.m./gram of material which allows more efficient removal of the Fluoride and arsenic ions. This high surface area is enhanced by controlled development of the pore size distribution from 30 Angstroms to 100 Angstroms, providing greater accessibility to the surface active sites through bulk diffusion.
Uniform particle size low silica content and high purity, is characteristic of the new and improved Proprietary Fluoride Reduction Media which insures effective operation in the reduction of Fluoride. The extremely low silica content significantly reduces the tendency of the silica to form silicone tetra fluoride which reacts with both the media and the pipes leading to clogging and corrosion problems.
The Berkey® Proprietary Fluoride Reduction Media is an EPA approved method for removing Fluoride from drinking water. This product can be used in various filtration products and can also be packed in large columns for high volume applications including drinking water treatment plants and waste treatment plants. The Proprietary Fluoride Reduction Media can be used in various applications where defluorination is necessary.
For maximum removal efficiency, maintain the water being treated between a PH level of 5-7. The media can be regenerated for enhanced performance lifetime with many applications. This makes the Proprietary Fluoride Reduction Media the most effective and economical defluorination product on the market.
TYPICAL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF PROPRIETARY FLUORIDE REDUCTION MEDIA:
Surface Area, sq. m/g. 350
Total Pore volume, cc./g. .55
Aluminum Oxide XRD Phase Chi, Gamma, Amorphous
Crush Strength, lbs (kg) 30 (14)
Abrasion Loss wt% 0.1 Bulk
Density, lbs/cu. ft (kg/cu. m) 47 (750)
TYPICAL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF PROPRIETARY FLUORIDE REDUCTION MEDIA:
The Berkey® Proprietary Fluoride Reduction Media has been specially prepared to optimize the media for more efficient removal of the Fluoride ion. Testing of the material is important for each application as influent water PH, quality and purify of the water and various metal ion concentrations are all variables which influence the effectiveness of the media. Note that the material is most efficient between a PH of 5 and 7.
Testing for fluoride removal was based on 20-30 ppm of the ion in the influent aqueous solution at a flow rate of no more than 3 gpm per cubic foot (25kg) of media. Results of < 1 ppm of the fluoride ion in the effluent were typical for the media. Under optimum conditions, effluent concentrations of less than 50 ppb of Fluoride ion were found to be readily achieved. Results may vary significantly with each particular application.
1. Calcium & Sodium Fluoride. The Proprietary Fluoride Reduction Media will remove any types of inorganic fluoride salts. All fluoride salts are soluble in water. So it does not matter what fluoride salts that are in the water, fluoride is present as an anion where the media will absorb fluoride ions in water.
2. Hydro-Fluorosilicic Acid (HFS). We do not have any test data to show how efficient the Proprietary Fluoride Reduction Media will remove hydro-fluosilicic acid. But by adsorption of fluoride anion using alumina, we believe the media will remove hydro-fluosilicic acid better than fluoride. The reason is both compounds are ions with negative charges. The molecular size of hydrofluosilicic acid is much larger than the fluoride ion and hydrofluosilicic acid has two negative charges where as fluoride has only one negative charge. So this negative charge makes hydrofluosislicic acid much easier to adsorb to the media compared to regular fluoride ions.
3. Berkey® obtains its Proprietary Fluoride Reduction Media from a third party that manufactures specialized media that targets difficult to remove contaminates, such as Fluoride and Arsenic. The above information provided has been extracted from the supplier’s data sheets and other written communications.
Many health experts claim that it’s an important part of maintaining healthy teeth that are free of cavities. But new research published in the journal Environmental Health says that artificially fluoridating public water supplies with the toxic waste byproducts of aluminum and fertilizer production is harming children, and appears to be directly linked to rising rates of learning disabilities like attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD.
Ingesting fluoride chemicals like hydrofluorosilicic acid via treated drinking water was shown in the research to contribute to a problem that more than six percent of American children currently face. Children who have trouble paying attention in class, are hyperactive, or who have trouble controlling their impulses could be the victims of a chemical assault that, for many decades, has been disguised as one of the “greatest” public health interventions of all time.
Contrary to popular belief, the synthetic fluoride chemicals added to most public water supplies in the United States are not the same as naturally-occurring calcium fluoride, a mineral that occurs in some places in nature. These synthetic fluoride chemicals are a major environmental risk factor for ADHD, the study found, and yet almost no research has taken place into this possible link, despite ever-rising rates of ADHD and similar learning disorders in children.
“States in which a greater proportion of people received artificially-fluoridated water in 1992 tended to have a greater proportion of children and adolescents who received ADHD diagnoses [in later years], after controlling for socioeconomic status,” Ashley Malin, one of the lead authors of the Environmental Health study, from York University in Toronto, Canada, is quoted as saying by Newsweek.
FLUORIDE EXPOSURE LINKED TO DAMAGED THYROID, DECREASED COGNITION, AND LOWERED IQ
Similar research out of the U.K. linked fluoride ingestion to thyroid disease, noting that fluoride displaces minerals in the thyroid that keep it functioning normally. Both children and adults are affected by exposure to fluoride, the study found, noting that exposure just from drinking water alone — this doesn’t take into account exposure from food, toothpaste, and other sources — is enough to push some people over the edge.
Pregnant women are especially vulnerable, as fluoride has been shown to directly cross the placenta and accumulate in the brain of a developing baby inside the womb. As its pathological effects proceed, these fluoride chemicals can continue accumulating until they reach a point of causing severe neurotoxic effects, damaging attention span, learning, and memory.
Tests revealed that children who are exposed to typical levels of fluoride in water — between 1.2 – 3 milligrams per liter (mg/L) — showed increased urinary concentration of fluoride. This marker is indicative of problems like poor visual-spatial organization, slowed reaction times, and an impairment of ability to read and write.
Ingesting fluoride at “optimal” doses is also linked to decreased IQ levels in children, as evidenced in numerous studies looking at intelligence and brain development. No matter how you look at it, fluoride is always a detriment, and almost never shows any positive benefits whatsoever in independent tests.
Sadly, millions of children are exposed to fluoride from other sources than just public water supplies. Concentrated fruit juices, processed foods, and conventional toothpastes are often loaded with fluoride chemicals, adding to the overall fluoride burden that is poisoning the bodies and brains of children and adults alike. It’s an epidemic that requires just one solution: to immediately stop fluoridating all public water supplies for the safety of the public.
“Fluoride appears to fit in with a pattern of other trace elements such as lead, methylmercury, arsenic, cadmium and manganese — adverse effects of these have been documented over time at exposures previously thought to be ‘low’ and ‘safe,’” says Caroline Martinez, a pediatrician and researcher at New York’s Mount Sinai Hospital.